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An epidemic of overweight and obesity

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States is dramatically higher now than it was a few decades ago. This is true for all age groups, including children, adolescents, and adults. One of the largest changes has been an increase in the number of Americans in the obese category. As shown in Table 2-1, the prevalence of obesity has doubled and in some cases tripled between the 1970s and 2008.

The high prevalence of overweight and obesity across the population is of concern because individuals who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of many health problems. Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer are among the conditions most often associated with obesity. Ultimately, obesity can increase the risk of premature death.

These increased health risks are not limited to adults. Weight-associated diseases and conditions that were once diagnosed primarily in adults are now observed in children and adolescents with excess body fat. For example, cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and hypertension, and type 2

diabetes are now increasing in children and ado­lescents. The adverse effects also tend to persist through the lifespan, as children and adolescents who are overweight and obese are at substantially increased risk of being overweight and obese as adults and developing weight-related chronic diseases later in life. Primary prevention of obesity, especially in childhood, is an important strategy for combating and reversing the obesity epidemic.

All Americans—children, adolescents, adults, and older adults—are encouraged to strive to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Adults who are obese should make changes in their eating and physical activity behaviors to prevent additional weight gain and promote weight loss. Adults who are overweight should not gain additional weight, and most, particularly those with cardiovascular disease risk factors, should make changes to their eating and physical activity behaviors to lose weight. Children and adolescents are encouraged to maintain calorie balance to support normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain. Children and adolescents who are overweight or obese should change their eating and physical activity behaviors so that their BMI-for-age percentile does not increase over time. Further, a health care provider should be consulted to determine appropriate weight manage­ment for the child or adolescent. Families, schools, and communities play important roles in supporting changes in eating and physical activity behaviors for children and adolescents.

Maintaining a healthy weight also is important for certain subgroups of the population, including women who are capable of becoming pregnant, pregnant women, and older adults.

  • Women are encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy weight before becoming pregnant. This may reduce a woman’s risk of complications during pregnancy, increase the chances of a healthy infant birth weight, and improve the long-term health of both mother and infant.
  • Pregnant women are encouraged to gain weight within the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines. 26 Maternal weight gain during pregnancy outside the recom­mended range is associated with increased risks for maternal and child health.
  • Adults ages 65 years and older who are overweight are encouraged to not gain additional weight. Among older adults who are obese, particularly those with cardiovascular disease risk factors, intentional weight loss can be beneficial and result in improved quality of life and reduced risk of chronic diseases and associated disabilities.

Sources: Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235-241. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA. 2002;288(4):1728-1732. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in U.S. children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):242-249. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Obesity Trends. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html. Accessed August 12, 2010. [Note: State prevalence data based on self-report.]